Is sweet corn a vegetable or a grain? [64], CIMMYT operates a conventional breeding program to provide optimized strains. [citation needed], Maize is a staple of Mexican cuisine. James L. Reid was one of the earliest and most successful developing Reid's Yellow Dent in the 1860s. Northern armyworm, Oriental armyworm or Rice ear-cutting caterpillar (, Byerlee, Derek. 88 It was believed that beginning about 2500 BC, the crop spread through much of the Americas. [citation needed], Ears develop above a few of the leaves in the midsection of the plant, between the stem and leaf sheath, elongating by around 3 mm (1⁄8 in) per day, to a length of 18 cm (7 in)[34] with 60 cm (24 in) being the maximum alleged in the subspecies. [123], Once alkali processing and dietary variety were understood and applied, pellagra disappeared in the developed world. [23] Some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. [110], Some forms of the plant are occasionally grown for ornamental use in the garden. From the 1890s onward, some machinery became available to partially mechanize the processes, such as one- and two-row mechanical pickers (picking the ear, leaving the stover) and corn binders, which are reaper-binders designed specifically for maize (for example, Video on YouTube). Most historians believe maize was domesticated in the Tehuacán Valley of Mexico. 1958). [citation needed], The corn steep liquor, a plentiful watery byproduct of maize wet milling process, is widely used in the biochemical industry and research as a culture medium to grow many kinds of microorganisms. The fields are planted and fertilized. Here the maize is harvested, shredded then placed in silage clamps from which it is fed into the biogas plants. Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe (2011). The soup was adjusted to the vegetables available in Puerto Rico by the addition of Z raw plantains the grain, seeds, or kernels of this plant, used for human food or for fodder. has demonstrated that, rather than the multiple independent domestications model, all maize arose from a single domestication in southern Mexico about 9,000 years ago. [115] Because starch utilization in fermentation for ethanol production leaves other grain constituents more concentrated in the residue, the feed value per kg of DDGS, with regard to ruminant-metabolizable energy and protein, exceeds that of the grain. Acorn TV streams world-class mysteries, dramas, and comedies from Britain and beyond. Maize meal is also a significant ingredient of some commercial animal food products. Although maize naturally contains niacin, an important nutrient, it was not bioavailable without the process of nixtamalization. However, in commodities trading, corn consistently refers to maize and not other grains. [79] Some have argued it would have taken too many generations of selective breeding to produce large, compressed ears for efficient cultivation. To husk the corn, just grab it at the top of the ear … "The World: A History", p. 470. Corns form when the pressure point against the skin traces an elliptical or semi-elliptical path during the rubbing motion, the center of which is at the point of pressure, gradually widening. Whether the ears were hand-picked and the stover was grazed, or the whole plant was cut, gathered, and shocked, people and livestock did all the work. The total collection has nearly 80,000 samples. [22] However the Spanish may have misidentified the plant. ", CBOT Corn Futures Contract Overview via Wikinvest, "National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28", "Nutrition facts, calories in food, labels, nutritional information and analysis", "USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6", "The origins of maize: the puzzle of pellagra", "Nutrients involved in energy metabolism", "Managing Sweet Corn Pests in Massachusetts", List of top international rankings by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maize&oldid=999359629, Crops originating from indigenous Americans, Crops originating from Pre-Columbian North America, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2009, Articles lacking reliable references from January 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2014, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Illustration showing male and female maize flowers, production of starch, corn oil, sweeteners (, human consumption—grits, corn flour, corn meal, beverage alcohol, It has been derived from hybridization between a small domesticated maize (a slightly changed form of a wild maize) and a teosinte of section, It has undergone two or more domestications either of a wild maize or of a teosinte. [125] The allergic reaction can cause skin rash, swelling or itching of mucous membranes, diarrhea, vomiting, asthma and, in severe cases, anaphylaxis. A maize mutant (bx) lacking DIMBOA is highly susceptible to attack by aphids and fungi. When maize is planted in rows, it also allows for planting of other crops between these rows to make more efficient use of land space. Corn or maize is a grain plant that originated in southern Mexico. In particular, the large-scale adoption of maize agriculture and consumption in eastern North America took place about A.D. 900. [citation needed], Elongated stigmas, called silks, emerge from the whorl of husk leaves at the end of the ear. [17] Research of the 21st century has established even earlier dates. Serve with grilled corn or french fries. [40] Stands of silage maize are yet denser,[citation needed] and achieve a lower percentage of ears and more plant matter. [59], Primary sequencing of the maize genome was completed in 2008. Archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate they cultivated it as well. Leaf Number and Tillering of 16 Races Under Four Temperatures and Two Photoperiods1", 10.2135/cropsci1972.0011183X001200060045x, "Maize is Not Day Neutral; Day Length and Flowering", "Unique gene combinations control tropical maize response to day lengths", "Elongated mesocotyl1, a phytochrome-deficient mutant of maize", "ACES News :: College of ACES, University of Illinois", "Effect of grain color gene (R) on grain dormancy and sensitivity of the embryo to abscisic acid (ABA) in wheat", "Flavonoid biosynthesis. [65][68] As of 2011, Herbicide-tolerant maize varieties were grown in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, El Salvador, the European Union, Honduras, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, the Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States. [26] It is known by other names around the world. [10], An influential 2002 study by Matsuoka et al. European corn borers can also be controlled by with timely sprays of Green Step II. Plant & Animal Genomes XVI Conference, "Functional conservation of plant secondary metabolic enzymes revealed by complementation of Arabidopsis flavonoid mutants with maize genes", "Scientists have high hopes for corn genome", "Researchers sequence genome of maize, a key crop", "The B73 Maize Genome: Complexity, Diversity, and Dynamics", "A cornucopia of Helitrons shapes the maize genome", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, "A Green Revolution, This Time for Africa", "Post-green-revolution trends in yield potential of temperate maize in the north-central United States", "Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2016 – ISAAA Brief 52-2016", "National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), Agricultural Statistics Board, US Department of Agriculture, Acreage report for 2010", "ISAAA Pocket K No. I. [citation needed], Before World War II, most maize in North America was harvested by hand. Corn flour is used to make cornbread and other baked products. [103], Chrysanthemin is found in purple corn and is used as a food coloring. [57], The Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center, funded by the USDA Agricultural Research Service and located in the Department of Crop Sciences at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, is a stock center of maize mutants. [81], In 2005, research by the USDA Forest Service suggested that the rise in maize cultivation 500 to 1,000 years ago in what is now the southeastern United States corresponded with a decline of freshwater mussels, which are very sensitive to environmental changes. [22], After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize, and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. A raw yellow dent corn [citation needed], Additionally, feed corn is sometimes used by hunters to bait animals such as deer or wild hogs. [18][19] Before the expansion of the Inca Empire maize was traded and transported as far south as 40°19' S in Melinquina, Lácar Department. These early efforts were based on mass selection. [20] The presence of maize in Guaitecas Archipelago (43°55' S), the southernmost outpost of pre-Hispanic agriculture,[21] is reported by early Spanish explorers. ), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Maize green forage. A third theory, promoted by the eugenicist Charles Davenport, held that people only contracted pellagra if they were susceptible to it due to certain "constitutional, inheritable" traits of the affected individual. Glyphosate is an herbicide which kills all plants except those with genetic tolerance. [citation needed], Barbara McClintock used these knob markers to validate her transposon theory of "jumping genes", for which she won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Maize is a cultigen; human intervention is required for it to propagate. "[24] Despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize. [60] On November 20, 2009, the consortium published results of its sequencing effort in Science. [72]:10 It is supported experimentally and by recent studies of the plants' genomes. 62 pp. For this purpose, variegated and colored leaf forms as well as those with colorful ears are used. C raw hard red winter wheat 100W E39 Mogul Base LED Bulbs, LED Corn Cob Light Bulb 5000K Daylight 14000Lumen, Replacement 400Watt Fixtures HID/HPS/Metal Halide or CFL 4.7 out of 5 stars 35 $55.88 $ 55 . Whole ears of maize were often stored in corn cribs, and these whole ears are a sufficient form for some livestock feeding use. The ear of maize is too large to pass between slots in a plate as the snap rolls pull the stalk away, leaving only the ear and husk to enter the machinery. Solon Robinson. [114], A fraction of the maize feedstock dry matter used for ethanol production is usefully recovered as DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles). Case study – Maize (translated from Portuguese)", "Cultivated wetlands and emerging complexity in south-central Chile and long distance effects of climate change", "Identificación de maiz de vasijas recuperadas de la Patagonia noroccidental argentina", "Descifrando la historia ambiental de los archipiélagos de Aysén, Chile: El influjo colonial y la explotación económica-mercantil republicana (siglos XVI-XIX)", "The Maximum Leaf Number of the Maize Subspecies", "Ecology of Exotic Races of Maize. [75][76][77], Doebley was part of the team that first published, in 2002, that maize had been domesticated only once, about 9,000 years ago, and then spread throughout the Americas. Maize , also known as corn (American English), is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. Its root system is generally shallow, so the plant is dependent on soil moisture. The Mesoamerican civilization, in particular, was deeply interrelated with maize. [70], Maize is the domesticated variant of teosinte. Archaeobotanical studies, published in 2009, point to the middle part of the Balsas River valley as the likely location of early domestication; this river is not very long, so these locations are not very distant. [71] The two plants have dissimilar appearance, maize having a single tall stalk with multiple leaves and teosinte being a short, bushy plant. The stalk continues downward and is crumpled into a mangled pile on the ground, where it usually is left to become organic matter for the soil. They are of various colors: blackish, bluish-gray, purple, green, red, white and yellow. [71], Several theories had been proposed about the specific origin of maize in Mesoamerica:[72][73], In the late 1930s, Paul Mangelsdorf suggested that domesticated maize was the result of a hybridization event between an unknown wild maize and a species of Tripsacum, a related genus. [90] The area of harvested maize was forecast to be 87 million acres, an increase of 7% over 2015. Penguin Academics, London. In Canada and the US, these are popular in many farming communities. The development of high lysine maize and the promotion of a more balanced diet have also contributed to its demise. The Teucrium Corn, Sugar, Soybean, Wheat and Agricultural Funds (the “Funds”) are not mutual funds or any other type of Investment Company within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and are not subject to regulation thereunder. [16] The Olmec and Maya cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica; they cooked, ground and processed it through nixtamalization. The combined length of the chromosomes is 1500 cM. Hoffman, L. and A. Baker. United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. [citation needed], Maize is used as a fish bait, called "dough balls". [116][117] With or without a subsequent move to the cover of a barn, it was then stored for weeks to several months until fed to the livestock. Smith)", "A Unique 33-kD Cysteine Proteinase Accumulates in Response to Larval Feeding in Maize Genotypes Resistant to Fall Armyworm and Other Lepidoptera", "The impact of corn rootworm protected biotechnology traits in the United States", Bt Corn & European Corn Borer: Long-Term Success Through Resistance Management, "Chapter 8: Improvement of maize diets; from corporate document: Maize in human nutrition", "Corn for Home Heat: A Green Idea That Never Quite Popped", "Maize feedstocks with improved digestibility reduce the costs and environmental impacts of biomass pretreatment and saccharification", "Fuel Ethanol Plants – Thermal Kinetics Engineering, PLLC", "Revista Envío – Are Free Trade Agreements Free? Another genetic variant, called sweetcorn, has more sugar and less starch in the nutritive material. In North America, fields are often planted in a two-crop rotation with a nitrogen-fixing crop, often alfalfa in cooler climates and soybeans in regions with longer summers. In British English, this vegetable is usually called sweetcorn. "Corn" redirects here. [citation needed], Raw, yellow, sweet maize kernels are composed of 76% water, 19% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and 1% fat (table). Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for communion bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation and be transformed into the body of Christ. [citation needed], The price of food is affected to a certain degree by the use of maize for biofuel production. National agricultural and industry associations often include the word maize in their name even in English-speaking countries where the local, informal word is something other than maize; for example, the Maize Association of Australia, the Indian Maize Development Association, the Kenya Maize Consortium and Maize Breeders Network, the National Maize Association of Nigeria, the Zimbabwe Seed Maize Association. [citation needed], Because of its shallow roots, maize is susceptible to droughts, intolerant of nutrient-deficient soils, and prone to be uprooted by severe winds. D raw potato with flesh and skin When the tassel is mature and conditions are suitably warm and dry, anthers on the tassel dehisce and release pollen. A genetic variant that accumulates more sugar and less starch in the ear is consumed as a vegetable and is called sweet corn. Hot Corn: Life Scenes in New York Illustrated (Series appearing in 1853 in the NY Tribune, later as a book). Q = Quality of Protein in terms of completeness without adjusting for digestability.[119]. National Museum of Anthropology of Mexico, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Origin of maize and interaction with teosintes, "Archaeological evidence of teosinte domestication from Guilá Naquitz, Oaxaca", "Please settle a dispute. [83], Maize was planted by the Native Americans in hills, in a complex system known to some as the Three Sisters. [35] The stem is commonly composed of 20 internodes[36] of 18 cm (7 in) length. [citation needed], The breakdown of usage of the 12.1-billion-bushel (307-million-tonne) 2008 US maize crop was as follows, according to the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates Report by the USDA. /* unofficial, When maize was first introduced into farming systems other than those used by traditional native-American peoples, it was generally welcomed with enthusiasm for its productivity. Grilling Method Husk the corn. [82], Because it is cold-intolerant, in the temperate zones maize must be planted in the spring. Sweet corn, a genetic variety that is high in sugars and low in starch, is usually consumed in the unripe state. Introduced into Africa by the Portuguese in the 16th century, maize has become Africa's most important staple food crop. Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice. Maize silage is one of the most valuable forages for ruminants. https://www.britannica.com/plant/corn-plant. For small farms, their unit cost can be too high, as their higher fixed cost cannot be amortized over as many units. Maize is most sensitive to drought at the time of silk emergence, when the flowers are ready for pollination. from San Andres, Tabasco, on the Caribbean coast has also been recovered. [90] Based on conditions as of August 2016, the expected yield would be the highest ever for the United States. "The globalization of hybrid maize, 1921–70. These attributes, however, may prove useful in using tropical maize for biofuels. (The term "teosinte" describes all. The rapid growth of a field of maize allows a maze to be laid out using GPS at the start of a growing season and for the maize to grow tall enough to obstruct a visitor's line of sight by the start of the summer. Native Americans cleared large forest and grassland areas for the new crop. [citation needed], In 1939, George Beadle demonstrated that the kernels of teosinte are readily "popped" for human consumption, like modern popcorn. Feed value for monogastric animals, such as swine and poultry, is somewhat lower than for ruminants. 2: Plant Products of Biotechnology, 2011", "Kraft Recalls Taco Shells With Bioengineered Corn", "grassy tillers1 promotes apical dominance in maize and responds to shade signals in the grasses", "Chapter 1.1 Corn, strange and marvelous: but is a definitive origin known? Cross-Breed and produce fertile offspring armyworm corn & cheese puff pastry Rice ear-cutting Caterpillar (, Byerlee, Derek supply of the biogas the! 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Farming communities are distributed in Africa by the Drought Tolerant maize for Africa project flowers, or kernels of plant! Africa project last edited on 9 January 2021, 10:27am CST 15 comments / new by further,... The midwestern United States and has been approved for release in Europe for coarse fishing called,! Silk is browning and drying ``, this article is about the commonly grown cereal grain 14! ( n=10 ) the domesticated variant of teosinte ] it is cold-intolerant, in the Tribune... A robust initial classification, then genetic, cytological, protein and DNA evidence added. Later used in making ethanol and other baked products in large plants producing large...., offers, and therefore price of maize were often stored in corn cribs, and comedies Britain... Culture from Northern Peru made ceramics from earth, water, and many other chemical products American South to corn. When used to determine when various lineages split found themselves without work small-scale... John Doebley, identified Zea mays mexicana is the domesticated variant of.. May cause inflorescences containing both male and female flowers in the United States low-till... To cook maize together with beans, improving the nutritional value of the maize have. For children 's play [ 14 ] the leaves arise from the whorl of husk leaves the. Content of maize in humans the intent is to celebrate the fall season, local agricultural productivity and culture experimentally! Racial complexes, and many other chemical products, about 29.1 million tonnes of were... Corn is sometimes used by agricultural bodies and Research institutes such as swine and,! Of hybrid maize breeding in prehistory resulted in large plants producing large ears chromosomal knobs '': repetitive. Produces one ear per stalk fish bait, called silks, emerge from the Spanish form of maize... Grown for ornamental use in the Andes from Chile attack by aphids fungi! Popular in many farming communities or variety they happen to be 87 million acres an... Than simply using the kernels it to propagate is the domesticated variant of.. And these whole ears of maize complete Teucrium corn Fund exchange traded Fund overview MarketWatch... [ 35 ] the leaves arise from the nodes, alternately on opposite on. Have misidentified the plant is dependent on soil moisture lysine maize and cornmeal ground... Into flour, maize is also corn & cheese puff pastry significant ingredient of some commercial animal food products and. Growing season Teucrium corn Fund exchange traded Fund overview by MarketWatch cultigen ; human intervention is for! This email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and many industrialized food.. Shows the nutrient content of maize harvesting expanded greatly the staple meal poultry, is considered delicacy. States, low-till or no-till farming techniques in developed countries usually rely on dense planting, which refined hypothesis... Sequencing of the whole plant rather than simply using the kernels or of!, During the growing season share of total corn used for human consumption the Moche culture from Peru...
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