While these islands are separated by thousands of miles of open ocean, Pacific islanders’ methods of sailing and navigation were likely well-developed and quite accurate. Magma is formed when source rock melts and partially cools, and a volcano produces a specific combination of melting and cooling that creates a distinct chemical “signature” (Weisler, 526). Web. This northern migration had passed over the Bering Strait into the Americas before doubling back to colonize eastern Pacific islands like Easter Island. While west-to-east migration is nearly universally accepted in the academic world, there is some interesting evidence suggesting prehistoric contact, if not migration, between Pacific Islanders and Amerindians in modern-day Peru. Given the Church’s prominent evangelization efforts in Polynesia, as well as its active media presence, its propagations of these beliefs are influential. "The Peopling of the Pacific." Finney, Ben. Emergence of West Polynesian culture This was believed to occur over centuries, among a seafaring people known for their exploration and skilled knowledge of their oceanic environment. American Anthropologist 87.1 (1985): 9-26. Samoan Culture 3.1 a. Mataj system and Land tenure 3.1 b. Decision-makingprocess of soalaupule 3.1 c. Tautua and fa'alayelaye and fesoasoanj 3.1 d. Aig,a and kinship networks 3.1 e. Church as integral part of fa'a-Samoa 3.2. Maamaatuaiahutapu, Keitapu. 328 June 2010. He further elaborates on the multitude of factors involved, suggesting that “we should expect to find, among other things, that human cognitive processes of planning, decision-making, collective action and the like must have been part of what happened, e.g. The people of the ancient period (50,000–25,000 BC) had a palaeolithic (Old Stone Age) technology and a hunting and foraging economy. Does Heyerdahl convincingly prove his theories? this Polynesian migration theory, Scientists experimented with DNA tests on Maori people; the results ascertain that the Maori have DNA traces of the Polynesian people. Archaeology suggests that the migration eastward occurred in roughly two waves, the first occurring in the Bismarck Archipelago, Samoa and Tonga from 1600–1200 BC, and the second occurring later and spreading to the outer reaches of the Polynesian Triangle, bordered by Hawaii, Easter Island and New Zealand. American Anthropologist 90.2 (1988): 401-05. Because this method takes both chemical ratios in the mantle and the age of the rock into account, it is able to narrow possible obsidian sources further than the previous method (Weisler 2, 1882). Timetable: 2 lessons. Furthermore, at least in Maori society, “the exchange of commodities between one group and another, despite their bellicosity and rivalry, was well-developed.” (Clark, 24). In short, the reasons that Pacific peoples dispersed from west to east may never be known, given the complexity of human decision making; there were probably a host of factors involved, including a limitation of resources but also including various other socio-emotional reasons. Instead, Heyerdahl proposed that the Polynesians must have left the west coast of South America and sailed westwards into Polynesia. On Niutao, Funafuti and Vaitupu the … Because islands have finite resources, changes in marine ecosystems or weather could easily impact food supplies and place strain on a growing society. Lecture. Similarly, biological researchers have been able to link settlements through the remains of animals introduced by voyagers, particularly the Polynesian rat (R. exulans). 9 Jan. 2011. Additionally, Polynesian society was highly stratified, and territory was divided between ari’i, or noble families. The similarity in iconography is unlikely to be coincidental, especially if it had religious significance, because this suggests a coherent belief system that may have spread as a whole. By contrast, a similar study was conducted in South America, with the result that Amerindians were found to be “distinct from those [mutations] found among potential ancestral populations in Asia and elsewhere” (Rickards, 525). La théorie ancienne la plus connue du peuplement préhistorique des Philippines est celle de H. Otley Beyer, fondateur du Département d'anthropologie de l'Université des Philippines.Beyer a exercé une grande influence sur la première génération d'historiens et d'anthropologues philippins [7]. L'Océanie est un ensemble géographique dont les frontières sont discutées, mais qui regroupe généralement l'Australie, la Nouvelle-Guinée, la Mélanésie, la Micronésie et la Polynésie [Note 1]. When European explorers discovered the Polynesian people on there islands, there was a consistent present of the slim built Polynesian … Their first thought was, ‘How did they get here?’ Over the past two centuries, anthropologists, archaeologists, scientists and historians have been trying to pinpoint the … The group found common genetic mutations among about 30-40% of East Asians and nearly all Polynesians and many Hawaiians studied (Lum, 571). He argued that it was not possible for the Polynesians to have sailed east from Melanesia into the Polynesian triangle because both the winds and currents constantly would have been against them. Web. Researchers at the museum now believe the “ceramic portraits” could be “ways of expressing religious ideas held by early Pacific Islanders” (Field Museum), which helps explain the significance of the design and supports the hypothesis that Pacific Islanders originated from a single people. J.-C., des migrations … The smaller arrows show their migration through Melanesia and across the Pacific. According to Patrick V. Kirch and Robert Green, whose study of cultural evolution in Polynesia was published in Current Anthropology, “the tribes, societies or ethnic groups of ‘Triangle Polynesia’ share a physical type, systemic cultural patterns, and historically related languages which allow them to be grouped together as a unit of historical analysis or … a phylogenetic evolutionary unit” (Kirch and Green, 164). "Myth, Experiment, and the Reinvention of Polynesian Voyaging." A theory he based on the physical … … Contrary to past theories of chance arrivals on islands, and the idea that Polynesians were descended from Americans, the similarities among Melanesians, Asians and Polynesians in their culture and shared archaeological record are quite conclusive. JSTOR. A study conducted by J. Koji Lum et al. Current Anthropology 39.4 (1998): 521-32. Web. For example, the presence of similar genetic mutations in Hawaiians and Samoans suggests common family lineages in two geographically distant places. Setting off in simple rafts, they gradually dispersed through the large islands of South-East Asia. Web. 11 Jan. 2011. Prior to the existence of scientific evidence such as DNA and geochemical analysis, speculation regarding Pacific Islanders’ origins often suggested origin in the Americas, based on certain cultural and biological similarities between the two regions’ indigenous societies. However, while he proved that such a voyage could theoretically occur, he lacked evidence to prove that such a voyage in fact had occurred. Kamehameha School Press, 1995. The researchers grouped subjects’ DNA into three “major lineage clusters,” all of which share common nucleotide deletions or substitutions. American Anthropologist 93.2 (1991): 383-404. "Pre-European Polynesia." Furthermore, according to an article by Bruce Bower published by Science News, “the artistic motifs on the pottery are much the same as Polynesian tattoo styles that occurred centuries later” (Bower, 233). In 1973 several people, all based in Hawaii, founded the Polynesian Voyaging Society in order to evaluate various theories of Polynesian seafaring and settlement. JSTOR. (2000) and ... with Tuvalu providing a stepping stone for migration into the Polynesian Outlier communities in Melanesia and Micronesia. This suggests that this ancient human might have been able to cross a couple of very short water gaps in the Lesser Sumba chain of islands in order to reach Flores. Terrell reminds us that “people had been sailing around the Solomons and the islands of the Pacific to the west of that archipelago for a very long time” before the first migration (Terrell, 6). JSTOR. 115. 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