ASTM International is a global leader in the development and delivery of voluntary consensus standards, to improve product quality, enhance health and safety, strengthen market access and trade, and build consumer confidence. Further destructive testing may also be necessary to discriminate among ink types. Surface weaves are uncommon but are easily visualized with side lighting. Standards and methodologies apply now, which were non-existent 20 years ago. A forensic auditor is required to have an understanding of various frauds that can be carried out and of how evidence needs to be collected. Standards and methodologies … forensic document examination what Page 3/10. Client Referral – Document Authentication, Document Authentication in Construction Disputes – Expert Article, Forensic Document Analysis in Elder Care Disputes – Expert Article, Forensic Handwriting Analysis – Expert Introduction to Handwriting Analysis, Living Trust Verification - Expert Receives “Thank You” from Client, Many Faces of Identity Theft - Article by Forensic Examiner, Mark Songer, Signature Verification – Expert Receives High Marks for Presentation. In this regard, a document examiner can be relatively certain when assessing types of ink or paper with a view to determining the origin of a document and whether it is an original or a copied version. The most commonly used EDD is the electrostatic detection apparatus (ESDA), which uses an electrostatic charge and toner to visualize areas of indented writing that may have been left by erasures or pressure from writing on top of the document in question. Although the ability to detect and disseminate intelligence about fraudulent documents is vital to border security, there are still countries lacking this capacity. Topics discussed include training and qualifications for forensic document examiners as well as the various methods used to exam differing projects, such as signatures, checks, computer and type generated documents, as well as obliterated writing. Forensic examination of Windows systems is an important part of analyzing malicious code, providing context and additional information that helps in understanding the functionality and origin of Malware. Forensic Document Examiner, Mark Songer, D-ABFE, CFC, was recently engaged in an investigation where he was tasked with verifying the authenticity of a business document. Where more than one signature is in question, please submit all of your documents; this could help strengthen the evidence in the case. FORENSIC DOCUMENT EXAMINATION A Brief History Frye v United States 293 F, 1013 (DC Cir. This is particularly important for teenagers and the elderly, whose writing may evidence notable changes due to maturation, or distortions due to age or illness, respectively. Forensic auditors are required to take precautions to ensure that documents and other evidence collected are not damaged or altered by anyone. Chemical tests are important in the examination of printing inks because they also allow examiners to provide an approximation of when the document was written. Beau Dietl & Associates is a premier Private Investigator NYC Company with offices in New Jersey, Florida and California. Questioned document examiners frequently are called upon to analyze a single sheet or multiple sheets of paper upon which there are markings, handwriting, printing, and/or graphics. The book discusses the basic concept of the characteristics of writing that are compared when making an identification or elimination of a writer. These defects may occur in the source machine, the recipient machine, or both, and must be differentiated from the noise that may occur during transmission. For cotton fiber-based paper, it may be necessary to use a weak acidic solution to disintegrate the paper into its individual fibers. Watermarks are frequently visualized simply by using transmitted light or soft x-rays, which produces an image of the density of fibers. The second important use of photography in document examination is for recording and presenting evidence. Document examination is a branch of Forensic science which deals with the examination of documents which are disputed in the court of law. Forensic Access provides a comprehensive documents service that includes the examination of altered documents as well as handwriting comparison and the comparison of signatures. Typewritten documents may be traced back to the typewriter on which they were written by means of the class characteristics of the machine (e.g., manual/electric, fabric ribbon/carbon film ribbon, type design) and individual variations across machines due to wear and tear, damage or misuse. It is particularly important for the forensic document to examine the original questioned document if it is accessible, as valuable evidence can be obtained through the microscopic examination of the original signature. certification program, designed to help anyone become a world-class financial analyst. Therefore, when faxed documents are called into question, both the source and receiving fax machines should be entered as evidence, as well as sample faxes from both fax machines transmitted around the date established by the TTI. Subject : Questioned Documents Course : UG Course in Forensic Science Keyword : SWAYAMPRABHA. The ACE-V methodology is one such way of organizing and evaluating data for the purposes of scientific classification and comparison. It is sometimes possible to remove the obliterating material using an ordinary rubber eraser, chemical solvent or scraping off the overlying layer, although pains must be taken not to damage the underlying writing. Kam (1994) has evidence to imply that as long as the document examiner has a thorough understanding of the principles, techniques and methodologies to conduct a handwriting examination there is a significant difference in their capability of conducting a writing identification as opposed to an examination by a professionally trained person. Why and when is forensic document examination used? They do not analyze the information in the documents, but the documents themselves. Transmitted faxes are often printed at a relatively low resolution, compared to documents that are printed or photocopied. Even though the manager did not directly financially benefit from this approval, he is deemed likely to receive personal benefits after making such inappropriate approvals. regarding the genuineness of such travel documents. He provides relevant data on the scope of the problem and outlines his involvement in two such cases. Enroll now for FREE to start advancing your career! To keep advancing your career, the additional CFI resources below will be useful: Learn accounting fundamentals and how to read financial statements with CFI’s free online accounting classes. The most common type of examination involves handwriting, whereby the examiner tries to … As a result, subtle details often relied upon in the analysis of handwriting or typed writing may not be reproduced. For example, Telemart, on the recommendation of its Chief Financial Officer (CFO)What Does a CFO DoWhat does a CFO do - the job of the CFO is to optimize a company's financial performance, including: reporting, liquidity, and return on investment. Any forensic document examination involving a fax machine also should include consideration of the Transmit Terminal Identifier (TTI), which is typically found in the heading of any transmitted document. This document contains an unsolicited letter of gratitude from one of Mark’s many satisfied clients. Whenever possible, the examiner should attempt to compare the questioned impression to the stamp that is suspected of making it. Here are some commonly used terms in the field of Forensic Document Examination you may find helpful when discussing a case with the expert: Training and Qualifications of a Forensic Document Examiner. Research has also found that faxes may undergo significant dimensional changes that can result in changes in size or even distortion, further complicating the investigation of transmitted questioned documents. Within, entered into a contract with RJ Inc for the supply of carts. Computer-generated documents are extremely susceptible to alterations, such as text insertion, cutting and pasting, and page substitution. These accrediting programs ensure that forensic laboratories meet established quality standards, and employ expert forensic investigators. The CFO had knowledge of this fact, but still recommended that Telemart enter into a contract with RJ Inc because he was secretly receiving compensation from RJ for doing so. Trained forensic document examiners systematically inspect questioned documents and compare aspects of the document to known standards in order to identify the nature and source of the writing or printing. Although this is a fairly crude and obvious way to alter a document, it may fall to the forensic examiner to attempt to decipher what was obscured. Indented impressions occur when an imprint is left on the paper(s) underlying the one that was forcibly written or marked upon. Currently, no federal licensing exists for forensic document examiners; however, in the United States, the American Board of Forensic Document Examiners (ABFDE) has established guidelines and issues a certificate of qualification. Internal weaves are more commonly found in paper and can be viewed with transmitted light. Many examinations involve a comparison of the questioned document, or components of the document, to a set of known standards. In this document, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer, provides an introduction to the science of forensic handwriting analysis. Therefore, questioned document examiners must consider the consistency of the overall document in order to look for signs of tampering. Finally, paper fiber analysis is a destructive technique that allows examiners to identify the type and quantity of fibers involved as a result of the pulping process. More probably, the examiner will be able to trace the ink back to the specific type, class, and or brand of ink, and suggest that it is scientifically indistinguishable from the suspected source. Forensic Document Examination enlightens forensic document examiners, forensic investigators, attorneys and others using the services of forensic document examiners with the basic principles and current trends in the area. For example, it may be used in criminal cases to determine whether a handwriting sample was made by someone within the home of a kidnapped victim or if it belongs to someone with a particular background, country of origin or with a certain educational level. Answer to 5. In this article, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer D-ABFE, CFC, discusses some of the methods used by identity thieves to acquire personal data and strategies that individuals can use to guard against identity theft. Requested writing specimens are gathered from the writer under carefully controlled, monitored conditions, whereas collected writing specimens were completed by the writer prior to the investigation in the normal course of their daily activities. Forensic chemistry is the application of chemistry and its subfield, forensic toxicology, in a legal setting.A forensic chemist can assist in the identification of unknown materials found at a crime scene. Given the poor quality of faxes in general, they are subject to alteration, however, so careful scrutiny should be applied to any discrepancies in pixilation across the document, as well as any variations in handwriting or print type, spelling, punctuation or formatting. However, in comparison to typewriters, it is rarely possible to link the questioned document back to the specific computer on which it was written. Questioned document examinations involve a comparison of the document, or aspects of the document, to a set of known standards (i.e., authentic specimens). The visual appearance of inks is only one clue to their composition. In this article, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer provides an overview of forensic document examination. Since#documents#are#part#of#dailylife,#forensic#document#examiners#work#a# wide#variety#of#cases.#Forensic#document#examiners#are#called#to#investigate# the#authenticity#of#documents#in#situations#such#as:# • forgeries# • counterfeiting# • … Any examination involving typewriting should include an evaluation of the class of typewriter, horizontal spacing, typestyle and make and model, and individual characteristics and defects. Altered Documents Checks What Are Some Documents the might need to be Examined? Next, it should be established whether the questioned document is an original or a reproduction, and whether there were multiple printing methods involved in the creation of the document (e.g., a printed document that was then photocopied and/or faxed). It enlightens forensic document examiners, forensic investigators, attorneys, and others using the services of forensic document examiners with basic principles, current trends in the area, and standards and methodologies which … Evidence might include alterations, the chain of possession, damage to the document, forgery, origin, authenticity, or other questions that come up … This article is an excerpt from Practical Applications in Forensic Science, authored by Mark Songer, published by Crime Ink Publishing, LLC. We are also able to examine indented documents using ESDA. Questioned documents can include legal documents such as wills, cheques, threatening letters, suicide notes and any form of letter or note relating to criminal activity. This process typically culminates in the presentation of gathered evidence at preliminary hearings, pretrial depositions, or in a courtroom. Documents may be damaged, making the process all the more challenging. The examination of handwriting and signatures involves the comparison of writing on the document in question to additional samples in order to determine potential authorship. It may even be necessary to reconstruct documents. +31 6 41 88 69 74. Image processing. Forensic Document Examination enlightens forensic document examiners, forensic investigators, attorneys and others using the services of forensic document examiners with the basic principles and current trends in the area. Because science is now used routinely in litigation, various groups, including lawyers, judges, enforcement officials, and the public, need to know what forensic science can and cannot do. Because of the scientific nature of the methods involved, the results of professional forensic document examination can be used in a court of law. I am an expert in forensic document examination with over 30 years experience. Although typewriters have largely fallen into disfavor with the advent of the computer age, forensic document examiners still may be called upon to investigate documents written on a typewriter. The field of Document examination is very wide and important as the criminals come up with new ideas to … A critical part of the job of the document examiner is to present evidence to the parties involved in a document dispute. Documents may be altered by erasing or obscuring writing, or by changing, extending, or adding text or signatures. This technique has resulted in the recovery of indented impressions on paper up to seven layers beneath the original writing, though findings may vary depending on pen pressure and paper thickness. Introduction. Handwriting Analysis Process Handwriting analysis is supported by the fact that two individuals cannot produce exactly the same writing. In natural writing, the writer is likely to have a strong fluency of line- meaning the pen will rarely, if ever, leave the paper while writing a single word or signature. The National Association of Document Examiners (NADE) also was established in 1979 to promote the interests of document examiners. Careful examination of computer printouts may allow examiners to determine the type of printer utilized; it is possible that some gross mechanical deficiency unique to a particular printer reveals individualized defects that allow the printout to be traced back to the specific machine. Among other Forensic science - Forensic science - Questioned-document analysis: Questioned-document analysis involves a number of areas of forensic inquiry. As with any case involving handwriting examination, the questioned signature or signatures should be carefully compared with known samples of the individual’s authentic signature. Both handwriting and signatures can be simulated or traced; however, the latter is more common. In this article, Forensic Document Examiner, Mark Songer discusses the role of document examiners within the context of construction disputes. In this case Mark was retained to perform a Questioned Document Examination (QDE). Learn more. Forensic science uses highly developed technologies to uncover scientific evidence in a variety of fields. Forensic handwriting analysis may be used in a number of different contexts. Many examinations involve a comparison of the questioned document, or components of the document, with a … In addition to noting uneven margins and crowding, the investigator should use a microscope to evaluate irregularities in the ink and paper, and any other potential anomalies throughout the document. DiD provides professional and independent document examination services as well as the provision of expert testimony at competitive rates. Forensic Document Examination. Trained forensic document examiners systematically inspect questioned documents and compare aspects of the document to known standards in order to identify the nature and source of the writing or printing. Document examiners are often also required to testify in the court if the case involves a documentary evidence. Misappropriation of cash, creating fake invoices, payments made to non-existing suppliers or employees, misuse of assets, or theft of Inventory are a few examples of such asset misappropriation. As one of the few destructive techniques employed by forensic investigators, a small piece of the document containing the ink is cut away, dissolved in solvent and analyzed. However, more sophisticated insertions or alterations require careful examination of the document as a whole to identify discrepancies. This is not covered within this documentation. He also developed and implemented Forensic Science & Criminal Justice programs at several institutions of higher learning, including the University of California and La Sierra University. In the context of crime scene investigation, questioned document examination consists of examining writing, printing, ink, paper, impressions, typewriting, typewriters, and other sources to determine whether a questioned document is genuine. Disguised writing is distorted writing that is intended to mislead the reader or forensic examiner as to authorship, and is often present in questioned documents. It is an apprenticeship field, requiring years of practice and work with an experienced examiner. Document classification C. Handwriting For example, the client might be suspicious about possible fraud in terms of the quality of raw materials supplied. It should be noted that handwriting identification or examination is distinct from “handwriting analysis” (graphology), which attempts to predict character traits from handwriting examination. In this article, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer discusses the role of document analysis in elder care disputes. Write reports or give testimony, when needed, to aid the users of the examiner’s services in understanding the examiner’s findings. They prepare a detailed report about the methods and process of the document examination. The primary purpose of questioned/forensic document examination is to answer questions about a disputed document using a variety of scientific processes and methods. Ink dating is not a testing process common to most document examiners, particularly in private laboratories. Foster and Freeman makes a Video Spectral Comparator (VSC), allowing ink comparisons and many other types of document analysis. Forensic Document examiners are assigned the duty to apply different techniques and methods to check the authenticity of the questioned document.. The scope of a document examiner’s duties extends far beyond authenticating signatures. Scope: This test method shall be used by the examiner to initially assess documentary evidence submitted for examination to the Forensic Document Unit (FDU). Sometimes two inks can look identical to the naked eye but further tests may be able to distinguish between them. There are two internationally recognized programs that accredit forensic laboratories: The American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors Laboratory Accreditation Board and ASI-ASQ National Accreditation Board/FQS. 1923) The Frye Standard Although this decision came about as a result of the use of polygraph testing, it was the standard by which expert testimony was allowed for 1900 decades. He discusses the steps that a forensic document examiner follows, including analysis, comparison, and evaluation. A forensic audit is an examination of a company’s financial records to derive evidence which can be used in a court of law or legal proceeding. Infrared or ultraviolet examination also may allow the examiner to differentiate between different types of ink. Although there is an element of subjectivity in the field of forensic document examination, investigators’ findings reflect more than mere opinion. 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