The Web sticks closer to the ASV text and the NASB says in its preface that it was following only the “spirit and intent” of the ASV. While translations aren’t very useful for deciding the exact wording of Greek, they can be very useful in deciding if certain words, phrases, and/or verses were included. The context and the discussion of a covering as a symbol over or upon the woman’s head makes this clear. Further – and I can’t stress this enough – there is more to the Majority Text theory than simply counting manuscripts. Irenaeus in the 2nd century, though not in Alexandria, made a similar admission on the state of corruption among New Testament manuscripts, yet Irenaeus admits that it was already corrupted — within just a few decades of the writing of the Apocalypse, I prefer to judge a work based on its merits, not what the authors, Think of the vile Textus Receptus leaning entirely on late MSS, As soon as the numbers of a minority exceed what can be explained by accidental coincidence, … their agreement …, A theoretical presumption indeed remains that, Once a variant reading appears in a manuscript, it doesn’t simply go away.  It gets copied and ends up in other manuscripts, Once a variant or a new reading enters the tradition, showing that five important early manuscripts combine to produce a total of. Further, this argument for Scribes choosing better manuscripts has parallels from the Textual Criticism of non-Biblical works too. Erasmus adjusted the text in many places to correspond with readings found in the Vulgate or as quoted in the Church Fathers; consequently, although the Textus Receptus is classified by scholars as a late Byzantine text, it differs in nearly 2000 readings from the standard form of that text-type, as represented by the “Majority Text” of Hodges and Farstad (Wallace 1989). No Christian doctrine is omitted from the Alexandrian text, but some appear strengthened in the Byzantine text. Sep 29, 2005 #2 Hello Nick, Three main reasons 1. References have been made to other textual platforms, such as Nestle-Aland Critical Text, the Majority Text and Textus Receptus. and Aland., also called the Novum Testamentum Graece or Critical Text. Their desire is to preserve the legacy of the NASB95, as well as incorporate two major changes: I appreciated that as well so my restless self could know I would be a minute. The word that’s highlighted is Hebrew word “אֱמוּנָה” (emunah).  And it means: So, “truth” in the KJV isn’t unwarranted, but hardly the primary meaning.  Therefore, this verse doesn’t teach Preservation either. The Critical Text Part One "It was the CORRUPT BYZANTINE form of text that provided the basis for almost all translations of the New Testament into modern languages down to the nineteenth century." Reasoned Eclecticism uses a set of rules to sift through all the Textual Variants and arrive at what they believe is original.  Since the rules are so central to their philosophy, we’ll take some time to examine them.  Further, understanding how these rules work and their place in Bible history will help you understand the modern Critical Text. 🙂. In the end, the greatest strength of the Critical Text is also its greatest weakness: man’s involvement.  If you forced me to pick one of the three major theories (instead of the blend I prefer) I’d pick Reasoned Eclecticism… but with a different set of rules. Please remember, the original Greek texts were all capital letters, so the translators added the capitals.  Further, no Christian was ever “born again” through the Bible; we are “born again” through Jesus’ blood and His work on the cross.  The whole passage so far has been talking about Jesus, who is the “Word of God” as in John 1:1. However important the early papyri, or a particular uncial, or a minuscule may be, there is no single manuscript or group or manuscripts that can be followed mechanically, even though certain combinations of witnesses may deserve a greater degree of confidence than others. Tuesday, February 8, 2011 Textus Receptus vs. Byzantine (Majority) Text On Willker's textual criticism list (Yahoo Groups) James Snapp Jr. recently posted an excellent summary of the relationship between the Textus Receptus (TR) and the Majority Text (Byzantine text-type). My personal opinion is that the Majority text is an excellent starting point.  Given its long history of transmission with very little change and the common sense idea that scribes will choose better manuscripts, I think that makes sense. Now some might object by saying the King James translators used a better source document.  However, the King James Translators used the 1525-1525 Masoretic Text by Daniel Bomberg as the basis for the Old Testament.  (The Masoretic text is the traditional Hebrew text, and contains far fewer textual variants than the New Testament.) First, remember that the worst manuscript at the 5th generation has exactly – and only – 5 mistakes (one added every generation).  5 mistakes in 219 words is still pretty good.  Over a quarter (16) of the incorrect manuscripts will only have a single mistake, most of the rest will only have 2-3. is to do a survey to see the evidence of meaningful In the 10th or 11th century, at least two scribes made corrections to the Codex Vaticanus.  This isn’t altogether uncommon with ancient manuscripts, but it does mean some places represent a 1th or 1tth century version, not a 4th century version. Aland rule #6: Furthermore, manuscripts should be weighed, not counted, and the peculiar traits of each manuscript should be duly considered. Can you state the ‘one very important verse that will lead some into sin’ that is in the WEB bible. Double for all her sins.”. That leads to the possibly the most humorous – and unsettling – thing about these correctors: the addition of a rebuke by one corrector to another. The New Westminster Dictionary of the Bible concurs, “It should be noted, however, that there is no prominent Biblical MS. in which there occur such gross cases of misspelling, faulty grammar, and omission, as in B [Vaticanus].”. 🙂. The Alexandrian text is about 5% smaller than the Byzantine text, and there are some differences in words between the two texts. (As we’ve seen). It gets rid of archaic words and phrases, provide quotation marks (they were not in the ASV), and resolves textual issues that have appeared after 1901. If you heard it read, you’d realize it’s an easy mistake to make because they sound almost identical. The Majority Text & Textus Receptus vs. Modern Bibles: NLT Version -- FREE - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. There are several different sets of rules for Reasoned Eclecticism.  (You can look at several here. And so saying, he took down from the corner of the room a bulky kind of volume, wrapped up in a red cloth, and laid it before me. If you’d like to read a longer treatment of this topic, I highly recommend this article. The reason we’ve spent so much time talking about Westcott & Hort is because the New Testament Critical Text that nearly all modern Bible are based on is virtually unchanged since 1881.  Now, that could be a good thing if you believe Westcott & Hort did a good job originally. The Textus Receptus theory argues that the text of the church throughout the ages was the “majority text.” Unfortunately, the early church fathers did not know of such a text. The voice of one crying in the wilderness: The crooked places shall be made straight, Behold, the Lord God shall come with a strong hand, with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb, For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means, According to Textus Receptus Bibles (.com), there are no less than, A Few Fun Things About Biblical (Koine) Greek. That gross blunder, whereby a clause is omitted because it happens to end in the same word as the clause preceding, occurs no less than 115 times in the New Testament. Plus, there are papyrus fragments from quite early that contain Byzantine readings, though often mixed with the other text types. I think that it is time for the WEB to pick up the mantle of the ASV. We have more manuscripts of the Byzantine text type by far than the other two families combined. It typically suppresses the deity of For example.  I’m writing this paragraph very early in the morning. When two copies disagree with each other, you have a variant in the text between two documents: this is (unsurprisingly) called a “Textual Variant”. Some Well, remember how the Western text type was famous for paraphrasing and the quote for it?  Well, it was Westcott & Hort who said of the Western text: “Words and even clauses are changed, omitted, and inserted with surprising freedom, wherever it seemed that the meaning could be brought out with greater force and definiteness.”  Therefore, it shouldn’t be surprising that they basically ignored the Western text type. For she has received from the Lord’s hand Can You For many are called, but few chosen.”, Matthew 20:16 New Revised Standard Version, Anglicised (NRSVA) The manuscript differences between the Greek text that the KJV was based on, the majority Greek text, and the modern Greek text are in agreement 98 percent of the time; the other 2 percent does not affect doctrine. I haven’t spent much time researching it though, so it’s merely an “at a glance” opinion. When I introduce New Testament transmission history and textual criticism, it is amazing to me that there will always be one student who approaches me afterwards with questions about the majority text … Other Greek texts besides the Critical Text used for producing English Bibles are the Majority Text and the Textus Receptus. However, this argument can be reversed later as evidence against the Byzantine Text type.  The short version is this. Three major points were made in this article: (1) The Majority Textdiffers from the Textus Receptus in almost 2,000 places, suggesting that the Byzantine text-type has been seen only through a glass darkly in the printed editions of the Textus Receptus. are from the Minority Text originated in Alexandria, Egypt. To condense/paraphrase verses 9-10: “woman was made for man, so she must be under male authority.” Contextually, that makes perfect sense. That’s how it got its name… because of a marketing ploy.  Let me say that again: The “Textus Receptus” got its name because of a marketing ploy. (2) The Page 290 Majority Text, differing from the critical text in over 6,500 places, has over 650 readings shorter than the critical text; such readings call out for an ex… (Majority Text advocates will say this is the most likely scenario.). Persecution under Maximinus the Thracian (235-38). Medium = Byzantine Text type, characterized by near-identical form over 1000+ years, and most manuscripts are of this type, Long/paraphrase = Western Text type, characterized by its “love of paraphrase” is like the “uncontrolled popular text” of Homer. One reason could be that “something is always lost in translation”.  A poor translation can obscure many things about the original language, making it difficult to know.  For example, imagine trying to reconstruct the Greek text by having several different English translations.  If you were working from an NASB or NKJV, you might have some luck.  But if you’re working from poor translations like the NLT, NIV, or any of the paraphrase translations, you’re basically out of luck. Further, such a text appears to prevail in the larger quantity of copies in Homer, Hippocrates, and the NT tradition. “I had no idea till the last few weeks of the importance of text, having read so little Greek Testament, and dragged on with the villainous Textus Receptus … Think of the vile Textus Receptus leaning entirely on late MSS; it is a blessing there are such early ones.” – Fenton Hort. The Alexandrian text type will need little introduction because nearly all modern Bibles are based on the Alexandrian text type.  If you pick up any popular Bible (except the KJV and NKJV) it’s almost certainly translated primarily from the Alexandrian text type.  Almost all of the oldest manuscripts we have are of the Alexandrian text type, probably due to the climate in the location where they are typically found (Alexandrian is in Egypt, and their dry climate is ideal for preservation. My issue is with what I feel, based on your obvious biblical knowledge and intelligence, is a purposeful ignoring of the Holy Ghost’s practice of making statements that have multiple and equally valid applications or truths when dealing with passages on “the word” “words” and Christ. In the end, the entire Confessional Position can be boiled down to a single question: This is the issue for the Confessional Position.  Like most Christians, they affirm that the original text of scripture in the original language – as penned by the original authors – is completely without error.   However, the Confessional Position argues that it doesn’t matter if God inspired the Scriptures if He didn’t preserve them too. 9 For also, man wasn’t created for woman, but woman for man. O Jerusalem, Most people who hold the Confessional Position would say that a Bible from other Greek texts (such as the Majority Text or Critical Text) contain the scriptures, just not all of them.  They would say they are incomplete and/or corrupted, so why use them? Majority Text advocates will typically argue that the earliest Byzantine manuscripts were lost because no other climate on earth is as favorable for preserving documents as Egypt.  Thus, they say there were Byzantine Text type manuscripts elsewhere, but they didn’t survive because the climate wasn’t as suitable for preservation.  That’s definitely possible – maybe even likely – but by no means certain. Dean Burgon describes the quality of the scribal work in Vaticanus: Codex B [Vaticanus] comes to us without a history: without recommendation of any kind, except that of its antiquity. Messianic prophecies are out of context! In visiting the library of the monastery, in the month of May, 1844, I perceived in the middle of the great hall a large and wide basket full of old parchments; and the librarian, who was a man of information, told me that two heaps of papers like these, mouldered by time, had been already committed to the flames. These errors alone account for hundreds of differences between the Alexandrian and Byzantine Text types. Is Jesus God? While indeed some of the favorite passages among my ilk are weak in conveying what Confessionalists say they do, some are quite clear, particularly Peter and Christ’s own statements to the longevity of His owm words, which would include any words of God unless He expressly stated otherwise. And so saying, he took down from the corner of the room a bulky kind of volume, wrapped up in a red cloth, and laid it before me. Not only is the parallel between NT transmissional history and that of Homer striking, but the same situation exists regarding the works of Hippocrates. Codex Vaticanus (“B”) is an excellent example of the Alexandrian Text type, and many scholars think it’s the most important Greek manuscript we have (again, because it’s the oldest. There are 7956 verses in the New Testament.  That’s an average of 0.81 variants per verse between Vaticanus and Sinaiticus.  Therefore, roughly 4 out of every 5 verses (81.3%) in one manuscript disagrees in at least one place in the other.  (On average. Again, the odds of all those scribes making the same error is vanishingly low. The crooked places shall be made straight But I find your interpretation of Psalms 12, while correct in a literal sense, wrong in a prophetical sense. 🙂 )  Both Textual Variants are meaningful, but it’s nearly impossible for them to be original (they aren’t viable). So if the Confessional Position wants to say the Textus Receptus was perfectly preserved by God and inerrant, then then we must ask: “which Textus Receptus?”  You need to ask which of the 27 possible versions they will pick, because none of them are identical with another. The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the people of God of old), and the New Testament in Greek (which, at the time of the writing of it was most generally known to the nations), being immediately inspired by God, and, by His singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical;(r) so as, in all controversies of religion, the Church is finally to appeal unto them. That covers the early manuscripts, but what about the later ones? (Note: there are some who are near militant on the importance of the Confessional Position.  Some even go so far as to say that other Bibles/translations are heretical and you can’t truly be saved with them.  We will be ignoring this segment and focusing on their more genial and reasonable counterparts.). However important the early papyri, or a particular uncial, or a minuscule may be, there is no single manuscript or group or manuscripts that can be followed mechanically, even though certain combinations of witnesses may deserve a greater degree of confidence than others. According to Textus Receptus Bibles (.com), there are no less than 27 different versions of the Textus Receptus! ( ‘her own’ are supplied and not in the original but like the KJV and the NKJV versions makes it clear that the authority or symbolic authority is placed on or over the woman’s own head). (NKJV or NASB, though the ESV barely eeks out an “acceptable” rating if you find the other two are too hard to understand.). It seems to me that while the scribe of Codex Vaticanus is certainly not the worst scribe ever (a title that must go to the scribe of Old Latin Codex Bobbiensis), his execution leaves something to be desired, and the claim that he hardly ever made blunders must be regarded as an exaggeration. In English the indefinite article “a” gets an “n” added when the next word starts with a vowel.  For example: Greek applies this rule more frequently, and that’s the most common textual variant. The authorities of the convent allowed me to possess myself of a third of these parchments, or about forty-three sheets, all the more readily as they were destined for the fire. Isaiah 7:14 16 So the last will be first, and the first last. (And that’s not including quotes by including the early church fathers).  That alone changes things a lot.  So if you hold to the Majority Text theory, you’ll needed to decide if you’ll only include Greek manuscripts.  If so, you’ll need a good reason to exclude the various versions. This brings us to one of the strongest arguments for the Majority Text theory: that scribes preferred to copy better manuscripts. For example take John 11:38 “Jesus wept.” If 25 manuscripts contain “Jesus was upset,” 30 said “Jesus was filled with compassion,” and 50 said “Jesus wept,” because the majority say “Jesus wept,” that will be in the WEB. The WEB is the first major translation to use the Majority Text. The [fourth-century] text of Chrysostom and other Syrian [= Byzantine] fathers … [is], must have had in the greater number of extant variations, The overwhelming majority of readings,” “almost all variants,” and “practically all the substantive variants in the text of the New Testament”, The criticism of the Homeric epics proceeds on much the same line, The shorter form in Homer is considered to reflect Alexandrian critical know-how and. Each textual family (or “text type”) tends to contain similar readings to other manuscripts in its family, but the readings are different from the readings of other textual families. 20 He indeed was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you. You did warn us it was long. Further the Majority Text theory could be in trouble if it could be proven that large chunks of manuscripts were lost.  Unfortunately, we know that happened in at least two ways. Whichever form of the Majority Text one uses, the TR differs from that text in many places. According to WEB’s rules, that person should rename his Bible translation. Now this is the Word (Jesus yet again) which by the gospel was preached to you. Textual Variants that are Meaningful and Viable, The Three Competing Theories – Overview, New Testament Textual Families or “Text Types”, The “Critical Text” Theory, aka “Reasoned Eclecticism, The Rules of Textual Criticism According to Reasoned Eclecticism. Let’s go through it one chunk at a time. Psalms 100:5 (KJV): For the LORD is good; his mercy is everlasting; and his truth endureth to all generations. ), For an example, let’s say we’re copying the shortest book of the New Testament, 3 John with 219 words (in Greek). Robinson-Pierpont said in their introduction to their Greek New Testament “Of the over 5000 total continuous-text and lectionary manuscripts, 90% or more contain a basically Byzantine Text form“.  However, the majority of these manuscripts are later than Alexandrian manuscripts.  The Byzantine text type does have some very early witnesses, (in papyri from the 200s and 300s) but these often contain Byzantine readings mixed in with the other text types.  The Byzantine text type is noticeably longer than the Alexandrian text type. Thy word is true from the beginning: and every one of thy righteous judgments endureth for ever. Praise ye the LORD. A defense of the Byzantine and Textus Receptus … Near East, the Textus Receptus was derived from 95% of the Bible However, to simply say their Critical Text is bad because of their personal views is… problematic. It’s currently in its 28th edition (as of spring 2020). On the afternoon of this day I was taking a walk with the steward of the convent in the neighbourhood, and as we returned, towards sunset, he begged me to take some refreshment with him in his cell. And its flower falls away, Only the reading which best satisfies the requirements of both external and internal criteria can be original. Any form of eclecticism which accepts this principle will hardly succeed in establishing the original text of the New Testament; it will only confirm the view of the text which it presupposes. which is every-thing in red. One of the greatest supporters of the Critical Text is Daniel Wallace.  He wrote a long “rebuttal” of the Majority Text entitled: “The Majority Text and the Original Text: Are They Identical?” That appears to be the standard “go to” article for rebutting the Majority text. These two passages go together because 1 Peter 1:24-25 is quoting Isaiah 40:8.  However, truly understand these verses, we need to consider the context.  Let’s look at Isaiah 40:8 first. 7 You, O LORD, will keep them; Since the KJV had plural, the 1984 TR has the plural. (‘her’ is supplied and not in the original but makes it clear that it is the woman’s head that the symbol is placed upon). His work was largely ignored during his lifetime but the English Standard Version largely agrees with his translation. From Europe to the It was a combination of primarily Westcott & Hott’s work, along with two other Greek New Testaments.   Later it was taken over by his son, and eventually by Kurt Aland and his wife, along with others.  It’s commonly referred to as the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece after the two most significant contributors.  (Eberhard Nestle and Kurt Aland). Did God Preserve the Scriptures Perfectly in All Ages? The early Christians translated the New Testament into other languages, and we have many of these translations.  If you only include the Greek manuscripts, then indeed the Byzantine Text type is the majority.  However, the picture changes if you include translations into other languages. Every other modern translation I’m aware of – including the NASB – uses the Masoretic text also.  Further, the NASB uses a modern reprint of the exact same text underlying the KJV. So when you see people (mostly Confessional Position and/or KJV-Only Christians) try to use the Majority Text to bolster their case for the Textus Receptus, please realize they’re misinformed.  While the two definitely share similarities, but they definitely aren’t the same. This method applies a series of rules to the various manuscripts we’ve found (we’ll look at those rules in a moment).  Using these rules – and a healthy dose of scholarly input – they decide what was likely added, removed, or changed, and therefore what’s likely original.  The result is called a “Critical Text”.  This is the position held by a majority of New Testament Scholars, and nearly all modern Bible are translated from the Critical Text. that errors never disappear but instead are copied down through the generations. 11 He will feed His flock like a shepherd; Say to the cities of Judah, “Behold your God!”. It’s almost certainly extremely close, but it’s almost certainly not identical. The modern English versions  This is also the text that agrees with more than 95% of the Bible Manuscripts in Koine (common) Greek. Has the plural them to yield up possession of the LORD ( Jesus again endures. 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